One of the dimensions along which programming languages can vary is that of verbosity. PLs can be placed on a continuum ranging from verbose (COBOL?) to cryptic (e.g., APL). Conciseness, the ''golden middle'' that successfully balances readabiliy with brevity can be elusive, and Lisp dialects have traditionally tended to the verbose end of the spectrum. Designers of two recent lisps Goo and Arc decided to break with this tradition.