The solution presented here is based on the solution for sicp-ex-1.7 and, similarly, uses the alternative strategy for the `good-enough?` predicate.

;; ex 1.8. Based on the solution of ex 1.7. (define (square x) (* x x)) (define (cube-root-iter guess prev-guess x) (if (good-enough? guess prev-guess) guess (cube-root-iter (improve guess x) guess x))) (define (improve guess x) (average3 (/ x (square guess)) guess guess)) (define (average3 x y z) (/ (+ x y z) 3)) ;; Stop when the difference is less than 1/1000th of the guess (define (good-enough? guess prev-guess) (< (abs (- guess prev-guess)) (abs (* guess 0.001)))) (define (cube-root x) (cube-root-iter 1.0 0.0 x)) ;; Testing (cube-root 1) (cube-root -8) (cube-root 27) (cube-root -1000) (cube-root 1e-30) (cube-root 1e60) ;; this fails for -2 due to zero division :( ;; Fix: take absolute cuberoot and return with sign ;;(define (cube-root x) ;; ((if (< x 0) - +)(cube-root-iter (improve 1.0 (abs x)) 1 (abs x))))

(define (cube x) (* x x x)) (define (improve guess x) (/ (+ (/ x (square guess)) (* 2 guess)) 3)) (define (good-enough? guess x) (< (abs (- (cube guess) x)) 0.001)) (define (cube-root-iter guess x) (if (good-enough? guess x) guess (cube-root-iter (improve guess x) x))) (define (cube-root x) (cube-root-iter 1.0 x))

(define (cube-root x) (cube-root-iter 1.0 x)) (define (cube-root-iter guess x) (if (good-enough? guess x) guess (cube-root-iter (improve guess x) x))) (define (good-enough? guess x) (< (relative-error guess (improve guess x)) error-threshold)) (define (relative-error estimate reference) (/ (abs (- estimate reference)) reference)) (define (improve guess x) (average3 (/ x (square guess)) guess guess)) (define (average3 x y z) (/ (+ x y z) 3)) (define error-threshold 0.01)

This solution makes use of the fact that (in LISP) procedures are also data.

(define (square x) (* x x)) (define (cube x) (* x x x)) (define (good-enough? guess x improve) (< (abs (- (improve guess x) guess)) (abs (* guess 0.001)))) (define (root-iter guess x improve) (if (good-enough? guess x improve) guess (root-iter (improve guess x) x improve))) (define (sqrt-improve guess x) (/ (+ guess (/ x guess)) 2)) (define (cbrt-improve guess x) (/ (+ (/ x (square guess)) (* 2 guess)) 3)) (define (sqrt x) (root-iter 1.0 x sqrt-improve)) (define (cbrt x) (root-iter 1.0 x cbrt-improve))

Use the improved `good-enough?`:

(define (cube-roots-iter guess prev-guess input) (if (good-enough? guess prev-guess) guess (cube-roots-iter (improve guess input) guess input))) (define (good-enough? guess prev-guess input) (> 0.001 (/ (abs (- guess prev-guess)) input))) ;; this should be (abs input) to handle negative inputs. Example: (cube-roots -1) should be -1. Before change, output was 0.33. After fix, output is corrected to -1.000000001794607. (define (improve guess input) (/ (+ (/ input (square guess)) (* 2 guess)) 3)) (define (square x) (* x x)) ;;to make sure the first input of guess and prev-guess does not pass the predicate accidentally, use improve here once: ;;to make sure float number is implemented, use 1.0 instead of 1: (define (cube-roots x) (cube-roots-iter (improve 1.0 x) 1 x))

<< Previous exercise (1.7) | sicp-solutions | Next exercise (1.9) >>