The text suggests that one should use a structure to keep track of pairs that have already been encountered. Notice that there is a `let` statement defining `encountered` around the internal definition of a helper function, so that this list is recreated every time `count-pairs` is invoked, and so that the helper has access to all encountered pairs at any point of execution.

```
(define (count-pairs x)
(let ((encountered '()))
(define (helper x)
(if (or (not (pair? x)) (memq x encountered))
0
(begin
(set! encountered (cons x encountered))
(+ (helper (car x))
(helper (cdr x))
1))))
(helper x)))
```

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A slightly different way of doing it. Note that unlike the above solution this one continues to traverse pairs it's already seen and so will never return if there's a loop.

`(define (count-pairs x) (let ((counted '())) (define (uncounted? x) (if (memq x counted) 0 (begin (set! counted (cons x counted)) 1))) (define (count x) (if (not (pair? x)) 0 (+ (count (car x)) (count (cdr x)) (uncounted? x)))) (count x)))`