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The recursive implementation of the given function is straightforward: just translate the definition into Scheme code.

;; ex 1.11. Recursive implementation. (define (f n) (cond ((< n 3) n) (else (+ (f (- n 1)) (* 2 (f (- n 2))) (* 3 (f (- n 3)))))))

Note that this solution's use of *cond* and *else* is optional. Since there are only two alternatives, you could use *if* instead of *cond*, without any *else* clause.

**Iterative procedure for Ex 1.11**

```
(define (f n)
(define (f-i a b c count)
(cond ((< n 3) n)
((<= count 0) a)
(else (f-i (+ a (* 2 b) (* 3 c)) a b (- count 1)))))
(f-i 2 1 0 (- n 2)))
```

This iterative version will not handle non-integer values while the
recursive version will, but as the conditions were given as *n >= 3* and not
*n >= 3.0* it is sufficient. Note the *<= count 0* condition. If the condition used *=* non-integer values would cause an endless loop as *count* would never equal exactly 0. As it is decimal values evaluate to the next whole value. ie 3.2 -> 4

The basic transform is given as:

a <- (a + 2b + 3c)

b <- a

c <- b

with a starting condition as defined by the boundary state *f(3)*:

a = 2

b = 1

c = 0

and iterating for another n-2 times.

Welcome to DrRacket, version 7.6 [3m]. Language: R5RS; memory limit: 128 MB. > (f -1) -1 > (f 0) 0 > (f 5) 25 > (f 4.7) 25 > (f 1000) 1200411335581569104197621183222182410228690281055710781687044573790661709343985308756380381850406620666042607564631605876156610535933789714780132607755663854744223225249491730428647795602251203632973677695221003056803565827035107926395650932180708300409716979009255557336360673626403040863408122386349183735643342985009827495351241264386090544972951146415009560371824341466875 >

The iterative implementation requires a bit of thought. Note that the solution presented here is somewhat wasteful, since it computes `f(n+1)` and `f(n+2)`.

;; ex 1.11. Iterative implementation (define (f n) (define (iter a b c count) (if (= count 0) a (iter b c (+ c (* 2 b) (* 3 a)) (- count 1)))) (iter 0 1 2 n))

;; Testing (f 0) (f 1) (f 2) (f 3) (f 4) (f 5) (f 6)

The above version does not terminate for n < 0. The following implementation does:

(define (f n) (fi n 0 1 2)) (define (fi i a b c) (cond ((< i 0) i) ((= i 0) a) (else (fi (- i 1) b c (+ c (* 2 b) (* 3 a))))))

Another implementation, which does not calculate `f(n+1)` or `f(n+2)`.

```
(define (foo n)
(define (foo-iter a b c n1)
;; a = f(n1 - 1), b = f(n1 - 2), c = f(n1 - 3).
;; return a + 2b + 3c
(if (< n1 3)
a
(foo-iter (+ a (* 2 b) (* 3 c)) a b (- n1 1))))
(if (< n 3)
n
(foo-iter 2 1 0 n)))
```

Output

> (foo 0) 0 > (foo 1) 1 > (foo 2) 2 > (foo 3) 4 > (foo 4) 11 > (foo 5) 25 > (foo 6) 59 > (foo 7) 142

Another iterative version, similar to above, but counting up from 3 to n (instead of counting down).

(define (f n) ;; Track previous three values. ;; fi-1 is f(i-1) ;; fi-2 is f(i-2) ;; fi-3 is f(i-3) (define (f-iter fi-1 fi-2 fi-3 i) ;; Calculate value at current index i. (define fi (+ fi-1 (* 2 fi-2) (* 3 fi-3))) (if (= i n) fi (f-iter fi fi-1 fi-2 (+ i 1)))) (if (< n 3) n (f-iter 2 1 0 3))) ;; start index i=3, count up until reach n.

Here is another iterative version that the original poster called "a little bit different".

Another commenter pointed out that it gives wrong answers for n < 3, but also asked, could someone explain how this works for larger inputs?

I am not the original author, but after staring at this for a while, I think I can explain it and correct it for n < 3.

Original version:

```
(define (f n)
(define (f-iter n a b c)
;; this makes f(n) = a f(2) + b f(1) + c f(0) for integer n.
(if (< n 4)
;; N < 4. cause n-1 < 3
(+ (* a (- n 1) )
(* b (- n 2))
(* c (- n 3)))
(f-iter (- n 1) (+ b a) (+ c (* 2 a)) (* 3 a))))
(f-iter n 1 2 3))
```

Explanation:

The other iterative versions start from f(0), f(1), and f(2), and calculate the next f(i) *value* based on the previous values.

In contrast, this version tracks just the *coefficients* of f(n-1), f(n-2), f(n-3). It starts with coefficients (a, b, c) = (1, 2, 3), as given by the definition. It then expands f(n) in terms of f(n-1), f(n-2), f(n-3). And so on, until you get the equivalent value using coefficients for f(2), f(1), f(0).

In f-iter, n is the counter that starts at the given n and gets decremented until n = 3. The `if` statement causes execution to stop at n = 3, and return this expression:

```
(+ (* a (- n 1)) (* b (- n 2)) (* c (- n 3)))
```

Since n is always 3 at this point (ignore the failure cases of n < 3 for now), that expression is basically:

```
(+ (* a (- 3 1)) (* b (- 3 2)) (* c (- 3 3)))
```

which is:

```
(+ (* a 2) (* b 1) (* c 0))
```

And that satisfies the objective of giving the answer in terms of coefficients of f(2), f(1), f(0):

```
(+ (* a f(2)) (* b f(1)) (* c f(0)))
```

So that is why inputs 3 or larger works, while n < 3 fails. For n < 3, the function should just return n, rather than calculate coefficients.

Corrected version:

```
(define (f n)
;; Given starting coefficients (a, b, c) = (1, 2, 3),
;; where f(n) = 1 f(n-1) + 2 f(n-2) + 3 f(n-3),
;; f-iter calculates new (a, b, c) such that
;; f(n) = a f(2) + b f(1) + c f(0),
;; where integer n > 3.
(define (f-iter n a b c)
(if (= n 3)
(+ (* a 2) ;; f(2) = 2
(* b 1) ;; f(1) = 1 ;; (* b 1) = b, and
(* c 0)) ;; f(0) = 0 ;; (* c 0) = 0, which can be omitted,
;; but shown here for completeness.
(f-iter (- n 1) ;; decrement counter
(+ b a) ;; new-a = a + b
(+ c (* 2 a)) ;; new-b = 2a + c
(* 3 a)))) ;; new-c = 3a
;; main body
(if (< n 3)
n
(f-iter n 1 2 3)))
```

At each step of f-iter for n larger than 3, f-iter calls itself with new values for a, b, and c:

new-a = a + b new-b = 2a + c new-c = 3a

To see where those calculations come from, consider this example of how (f 5) calculates 25.

(f 5) (f-iter 5 1 2 3) n=5, f(5) = 1 f(4) + 2 f(3) + 3 f(2) ;; by definition = 1 (1 f(3) + 2 f(2) + 3 f(1)) + 2 f(3) + 3 f(2) ;; expand f(4) = (1 + 2) f(3) + (2 + 3) f(2) + 3 f(1) ;; combine terms a + b 2a + c 3a ;; observe pattern = 3 f(3) + 5 f(2) + 3 f(1) ;; new a b c (f-iter 4 3 5 3) n=4, = 3 f(3) + 5 f(2) + 3 f(1) ;; continued = 3 (1 f(2) + 2 f(1) + 3 f(0)) + 5 f(2) + 3 (f1) ;; expand f(3) = (3 + 5) f(2) + (6 + 3) f(1) + 9 f(0) ;; combine terms a + b 2a + c 3a ;; observe pattern = 8 f(2) + 9 f(1) + 9 f(0) ;; new a b c (f-iter 3 8 9 9) n=3, = 8 f(2) + 9 f(1) + 9 f(0) ;; n=3, so stop looping, and apply a, b, c: (+ (* a 2) (* b 1) (* c 0)) (+ (* 8 2) (* 9 1) (* 9 0)) (+ 16 9 0) 25

Heres another iterative solution, counting up

```
(define (fn-iterate n)
(define (fn-iter count n f1 f2 f3)
(if (= count n) f3 (fn-iter (+ count 1) n f2 f3 (+ (* 3 f1) (* 2 f2) f3))))
(if (<= n 3) n (fn-iter 3 n 1 2 3)))
```

another iterative solution

(define (f n) (i n 2 1 0)) (define (i n f1 f2 f3) (cond ((< n 2) n) ((< n 3) f1) (else (i (- n 1) (+ f1 (* 2 f2) (* 3 f3)) f1 f2))))

Another iterative version

```
(define (f-iterative n)
(define (sub1 x) (- x 1))
(define (iter count n-1 n-2 n-3)
(define (f)
(+ n-1 (* 2 n-2) (* 3 n-3)))
(if (= count 0)
n-1
(iter (sub1 count) (f) n-1 n-2)))
(if (< n 3)
n
(iter (- n 2) 2 1 0)))
```

And these is how it calculates (f-iterative 7):

(f-iterative 7) (iter (- 7 2) 2 1 0) (iter (sub1 5) 4 2 1) (iter (sub1 4) 11 4 2) (iter (sub1 3) 25 11 4) (iter (sub1 2) 59 25 11) (iter (sub1 1) 142 59 25) 142

Another iterative version for all integers. Straightforward, but doesn't calculate unneeded values.

```
(define (fi n)
(define (f-iter a b c count)
(cond ((< count 0) count)
((= count 0) a)
((= count 1) b)
((= count 2) c)
(else (f-iter b c (+ c (* 2 b) (* 3 a)) (- count 1)))))
(f-iter 0 1 2 n))
```

Here are two other iterative versions, designed for readability rather than concision. The first version can handle only integers; the second version can handle integers and numbers with a fractional part. The design decisions promoting readability are:

- treat the input variable and the counter as separate variables;
- separate out the logic for calculating the function for a given set of inputs (the
*result*procedure below); and - keep the input variables in the same order they appear in the specification.

Neither version does any unnecessary calculations, though they do use an extra variable (by tracking at every iteration both the input, which never changes, and the counter).

**Solution 1 - integers only**

(define (f n) (define (f-helper n counter a b c) (define result (+ a (* 2 b) (* 3 c))) (cond ((< n 3) n) ((>= counter n) result) (else (f-helper n (+ 1 counter) result a b)))) (f-helper n 3 2 1 0)) ; initial values, which represent calling function with 3: ; counter = 3 ; a = 2 (3-1) ; b = 1 (3-2) ; c = 0 (3-3)

**Solution 2 - integers and numbers with a fractional part**

```
(define (f n)
(define (f-helper n counter a b c)
(define result
(+ a (* 2 b) (* 3 c)))
(cond ((< n 3) n)
((>= counter n) result)
(else (f-helper n (+ 1 counter) result a b))))
(define fract-n (- n (truncate n)))
(f-helper n
(+ 3 fract-n)
(+ 2 fract-n)
(+ 1 fract-n)
(+ 0 fract-n)))
```

To make this approach work for non-integers, the only requirement is to get the fractional part of the input, using the *fract-n* helper function, and update all of the starting values with that fractional part. If the fractional part is zero, solution 1 and solution 2 are identical. Of course, this implementation doesn't account for floating-point inaccuracy, and the result of this called on a floating-point input might differ by a small amount from the result of the recursive version called on the same input.