sicp-ex-3.52



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perry

(define seq (stream-map accum (stream-enumerate-interval 1 20)))

sum

;Value: 1

(define y (stream-filter even? seq))

sum

;Value: 6

(define z (stream-filter (lambda (x) (= (remainder x 5) 0)) seq))

(stream-ref y 7)

;Value: 136




leafac

 (define sum 0) 
 ;; sum => 0 
  
 (define (accum x) 
   (set! sum (+ x sum)) 
   sum) 
 ;; sum => 0 
  
 (define seq (stream-map accum (stream-enumerate-interval 1 20))) 
 ;; sum => 1 
  
 (define y (stream-filter even? seq)) 
 ;; sum => 6 
  
 (define z (stream-filter (lambda (x) (= (remainder x 5) 0)) 
                          seq)) 
 ;; sum => 10 
  
 (stream-ref y 7) 
 ;; sum => 136 
 ;; => 136 
  
 (display-stream z) 
 ;; sum => 210 
 ;; => (10 15 45 55 105 120 190 210) 
  

If we had not memoized the results of delayed evaluations, we would need to recalculate the elements that `stream-ref' created when we were evaluating `display-stream'. Thus, the results would be different, because the accumulator would add those to the sum twice.


timothy235

Note that if a stream has side-effects, the side-effect of the stream-car will only ever be expressed once, and this is true for memoized and un-memoized streams. This is because of our definition of a stream as a value-thunk pair. The definition of stream in effect automatically caches the stream-car as the value part of the value-thunk pair.


codybartfast




+----------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+
|                | SICP Scheme | SICP Scheme | Racket With  | Racket With  |
|                |    With     |   Without   |    Text's    |   Built in   |
| sum after:     | Memoization | Memoization | Map & Filter | Map & Filter |
+----------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+
| define accum   |        0    |       0     |        0     |        0     |
+----------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+
| define seq     |        1    |       1     |        0     |        0     |
+----------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+
| define y       |        6    |       6     |        6     |        0     |
+----------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+
| define z       |       10    |      15     |       10     |        0     |
+----------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+
| stream-ref     |      136    |     162     |      136     |      136     |
+----------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+
| display-stream |      210    |     362     |      210     |      210     |
+----------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+--------------+

  Printed response with memoization: 10, 15, 45, 55, 105, 120, 190, 210
  Printed response without memoization: 15, 180, 230, 305
  Printed response with Racket: 10, 15, 45, 55, 105, 120, 190, 210

Unlike generators and streams from most languages, including modern Scheme,
the first element of the stream is not delayed and is evaluated at creation
time.  With memoization this doesn't make a difference to the elements of
seq (and hence values of sum) as they are evaluated just once and always in
the same order.  But without memoization several elements are evaluated more
than once and the order in which they are evaluated will affect the values
of seq.

The lack of a delay for the first item of a stream is discussed in the
Rationale of SRFI 41 (Scheme Request For Implementation) where Abelson and
Sussman's implementation is described as 'odd' streams and this chapter of
SICP is referenced for understanding 'odd' streams.  However, 'even' streams
(Wadler et al), which do delay the first item, predominate today.

The non-memoizing results were obtained by implementing a non-memoizing
stream using the language implementation from Chapter 4.


============================================================================
==  With Memoization  ======================================================
============================================================================

Call to define seq:
===================
      sum:   0 |
 interval:     | 1
---------------+--
      seq:     | 1

Call to define y:
=================
      sum:   1 |
  car seq:   1 | 1
 interval:   1 |   2 3
      seq:     |   3 6
---------------+------
        y:     | - - 6


Call to define z:
=================
      sum:   6 |
  car seq:   1 | 1
    car y:   6 |
 interval:   3 |        4
      seq:     |       10
 memoized:     |   3 6 
---------------+---------
        z:     | - - - 10


Call to stream-ref y 7
======================
      sum:  10 |
  car seq:   1 |
    car y:   6 | 6  
    car z:  10 |
 interval:   4 |       5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13  14  15  16
      seq:     |      15 21 28 36 45 55 66 78 91 105 120 136
 memoized:     |   10
---------------+--------------------------------------------
 stream-ref:   | 6 10  -  - 28 36  -  - 66 78  -   - 120 136


Call to display-stream
======================
      sum: 136 |
  car seq:   1 |
    car y:   6 |
    car z:  10 | 10
 interval:  16 |                                            17  18  19  20
      seq:     |                                           153 171 190 210
 memoized:     |    15 21 28 36 45 55 66 78 91 105 120 136
---------------+----------------------------------------------------------
display-stream:| 10 15  -  -  - 45 55  -  -  - 105 120   -   -   - 190 210


============================================================================
==  Without Memoization  ===================================================
============================================================================

Call to define seq:
===================
      sum:   0 |
 interval:     | 1
---------------+--
      seq:     | 1

Call to define y:
=================
      sum:   1 |
  car seq:   1 | 1
 interval:   1 |   2 3
      seq:     |   3 6
---------------+------
        y:     | - - 6


Call to define z:
=================
      sum:   6 |
  car seq:   1 | 1
    car y:   6 |
 interval:   1 |   2  3  4
      seq:     |   8 11 15
---------------+----------
        z:     | - -  - 15


Call to stream-ref y 7
======================
      sum:  15 |
  car seq:   1 |
    car y:   6 | 6
    car z:  15 |
 interval:   3 |    4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12  13  14  15  16  17
      seq:     |   19 24 30 37 45 54 64 75 87 100 114 129 145 162
---------------+-------------------------------------------------
 streamm-ref:  | 6  - 24 30  -  - 54 64  -  - 100 114   -   - 162

       
Call to display-stream
======================
      sum: 162 |
  car seq:   1 |
    car y:   6 |
    car z:  15 | 15
 interval:   4 |      5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12 ...  16  17  18  19  20
      seq:     |    167 173 180 188 197 207 218 230 ... 288 305 323 342 362
---------------+-----------------------------------     -------------------
display-stream:| 15   -   - 180   -   -   -   - 230 ...   - 305   -   -   -